Decimal number system

Before I introduce the number systems that are more commonly used in electronics lets discuss a number system that we all are aware of and which we use it everyday.
The Decimal number system got its name because it uses 10 symbols (or popularly digits) for counting and performing operations. It uses the digits 0 to 9.
In this number system the radix or the base is 10 since number of digits used is ten.

The general format of decimal number representation is shown below


  104    103    102     101    100          10-1    10-2   10-3    10-4           Weights
  S   S   S   S   S  .   S-1    S-2    S-3    S-4  
                                              ↑                                     
MSD                               Decimal point                    LSD


Where
           MSD is most significant digit (left most digit of a number)
           LSD is the least significant digit (right most digit of a number)

Note: From the fig we can observe that the MSD has the greatest weight and the LSD have the smallest weight.


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